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The calls " Lines of Nasca ", whose origin dates from the pre-Hispanic period, represent due to their number and characteristics, to the more important assembly of megaglifos that it exists in our planet and one of the most disquieting enigmas for universal archaeology.



The Lines of Nasca are located in Pampas of Jumana, region Libertadores Wari, in Peru;, South America. The town is located 500 km to the south of Lima, with 600 m of altitude; the name "Nasca" comes from the old and enigmatic culture. These great geoglifos not only are in the zone of greater concentration, like in Pampas of Jumana, also too are distributed in a geographic zone that includes the river basins of Santa Cruz, Rio Grande, Palpa, Ingenio and Nasca.



Nasca is one of the most representative towns of the great diversity of cultures that have existed in central of the Andes. After a long cultural development that goes back to the Paracas culture, the Nasca town managed to establish a successful economy in an extremely difficult zone by its dryness and its rough geography. In addition to this profit, they had a great magical apparatus - religious, own of the Andean cultures. Along with the Moche of the North coast of Peru, emphasized artistic by their crafts, represented in its fine and policroma ceramic as well as in them textils. Most of the geoglifos was done by means of the technique of superficial sweeping, forming defined lines and fields.





The lines began reached the national interest from XXVII Americanist Congress in the year 1939, made in Peru; During that event, Toribio Mejía Xesspe raised some theories about their origin and use, where the vocation magician had to play an important role in them conception and execution. Between the foreign investigators who took care of their origin and function honored Paul Kosok, who from year 1941 was interested in this enigmatic archaeological rest and managed to trouble to the German citizen Maria Reiche, who comes making from that date an important work, as much of conservation as of investigation, by means of complex mathematical calculations to deduce how were conceived and executed these figures.



Maria Reiche affirms that the geometric drawings are compound of six basic elements: quadrangles, triangles, two oscillating types of oscillating lines, lines and starred centers. In addition also are frequent figures in spiral. In the defined ways, great trapezial and rectangular figures are appraised along with that form, the lines, assemblies of really monumental proportions, those that in their majority are located near great populations of the time, like the Quebrada del Fraile, Río Grander, Cahuachi, and of some minors as Palpa and Ingenio.


In the map we can appreciate the distribution of the main figures / lines.
1. Killer Whale. 13. Dog.
2. Wing. 14. Astronaut.
3. Baby Condor. 15. Triangle.
4. Bird. 16. Whale.
5. Animal. 17. Trapezoids.

6. Spiral.

18. Star.

7. Lizard.

19. Pelican.
8. Tree. 20. Bird.
9. Hands. 21. Trapezoids.
10. Spiral. 22. Hummingbird.
11. Spider. 23. Trapezoid.
12. Flower. 24. Monkey.




The Monkey: Famous figure with approximately 135 m.Shows the animal with only nine fingers and one tail in spiral form. This is one of the most relevant figures and it is created represents the Great Bear.



The Spider: With 46 ms of length, that is located between a network of straight lines and is part of the edge of an enormous trapeze.


LINES OF NASCA: The Hummingbird. (El Colibrí).

The Hummingbird: It is another one of the most famous figures due to its harmonious proportion. The distance between the ends of its two wings is of 66 meters.


LINES OF NASCA: The Giant Bird.

The Giant Bird: This figure, made next to a trapeze, shows a great bird with snake neck whose tip indicates to the rising sun. This gigantic bird has a total length of 300 ms and 54 meters wide. It is considered by the studious scientists of Pampas like the " Announcer of the Inti Raymi " (incaic celebration of adoration to the sun), because in the mornings from the 20 to the 23 of June when someone is locating in the head and follow with the eyes the direction of its enormous tip, can observe the exit of the sun, exactly in the point indicated by this direction.



The Pampas of Nasca (platform in where are the lines) does not have accessible takeoffs thus is only possible to fly over it with paramotor or being elevated by a system of "towing". The zone is highly thermal being possible flights of cross visiting all the lines. Several airline companies offer Tours that fly over the lines.

Hotels in the zone with prices from US$ 5 to $ 50, the Tours in small plane (30 min. approx.) cost around US$ 40. The travell in bus from Lima takes near six hours and a complete visit in two days can be done.

By the importance and fragility of the lines, requests the visitors to them to be conscious and to avoid any action that affects the monument.



At the present time the lines are in danger to disappear because the Pampas are crossed by automotive vehicles that to their step, turn the Earth into a fine dust that covers the bottom on which are the lines, preventing them visibility.

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